The use of the Cmethod to make new discoveries is called scientific research, and the people who carry out this research are called scientists. Applied science, or engineering, is the practical application of scientific knowledge. Scientific literacy is the ability of the general population to understand the basic concepts related to science. In the modern world, scientific research is a major activity in all developed nations, and scientists are expected to publish their discoveries in refereed journals, scientific periodicals where referees check the facts in an article before it is published. Even after publication, new scientific ideas are not generally accepted until the work has been very closely double-checked and the experiments reproduced by other researchers.